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CNC machining is a subtractive manufacturing process that usually uses computer control and machine tools to remove material layers from parts (called blanks or workpieces) and produce custom-designed parts. This process is suitable for a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, wood, glass, foam and composite materials, and is used in various industries, such as large-scale CNC processing, processing of telecommunications parts and prototypes, and CNC processing of aviation parts, Compared to other industry, they require tighter tolerances.
CNC machining is a manufacturing process suitable for a wide variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, construction, and agriculture, and able to produce a range of products, such as automobile frames, surgical equipment, airplane engines, gears, and hand and garden tools.
CNC machining has the characteristics of automation, which can meet the needs of one-off and medium-volume production, so it can produce high-precision, high-precision, simple parts and cost-effective products.
CNC Machining Materials:
The CNC machining process is suitable for a variety of engineering materials, including:
Metal (e.g., aluminum, brass, stainless steel, alloy steel, etc.)
Plastic (e.g., PEEK, PTFE, nylon, etc.)
The optimal material for selection to apply to a CNC manufacturing application is largely dependent on the particular manufacturing application and its specifications. Most materials can be machined provided that they can withstand the machining process—i.e., have sufficient hardness, tensile strength, shear strength, and chemical and temperature resistance.
The main CNC machining processes include: CNC Drilling, CNC Milling and CNC Turning
Drilling is a machining process which employs multi-point drill bits to produce cylindrical holes in the workpiece. Operational capabilities of the drilling process include counterboring, countersinking, reaming, and tapping.
Milling is a machining process which employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to remove material from the workpiece. Operational capabilities of the milling process include face milling—cutting shallow, flat surfaces and flat-bottomed cavities into the workpiece—and peripheral milling—cutting deep cavities, such as slots and threads, into the workpiece.
Turning is a machining process which employs single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece. Operational capabilities of the turning process include boring, facing, grooving, and thread cutting. When it comes down to a CNC mill vs. lathe, milling, with its rotating cutting tools, works better for more complex parts. However, lathes, with rotating workpieces and stationary cutting tools, work best for faster, more accurate creation of round parts.
Swiss machining, also known as Swiss screw machining, uses a special type of lathe that allows the workpiece to move back and forth and rotate to achieve tighter tolerances and better cutting stability. Swiss machining is most suitable for small parts, such as table screws, and applications with strict straightness or concentricity tolerances.
The basic CNC machining process includes the following stages:
Designing the CAD model
Designs for CNC machined parts are restricted by the capabilities (or inabilities) of the CNC machine and tooling. The properties of the material being machined, tooling design, and work holding capabilities of the machine further restrict the design possibilities, such as the minimum part thicknesses, maximum part size, and inclusion and complexity of internal cavities and features. Please send your 3D CAD model in igs, stp, x_t solid format, we can help to evaluate it free.
Converting the CAD file to a CNC program
Preparing the CNC machine
Executing the machining operation